Gipsum

Gipsum marupakan mineral sulfat lamah nang tardiri matan kalsium sulfat dihidrat, lawan formula kimka CaSO4·2H2O.[3] Material ngini rancak ditambang wan dipakai gasan pupuk wan gasan bahan utama maulah barang nang kaya plester, papan tulis kapur/kapur trotoar, wan tawing gipsum. Sabuting gipsum nang putih atawa warnanya sawo masak nang tarang dingarani alabaster, sudah rancak dipakai gasan maulah patung ulih bamacam-macam paradaban, tamasuk Mesir Bahari, Mesopotamia, Romawi Bahari, Byzantium, wan alabaster Nottingham matan Inggris Patangahan. Gipsum bisa jua mangkristal nang tambus cahaya, anng bangaran selenit. Kristal ngini tabantuk sabagai evaporasi mineral wan sabagai hidrasi produk matan [[anhidrit]. Skala kakarasan mineral Mohs manjalasakan kakarasan matan gipsum njlainya 2, badasarakan gurisan pambandingan kakarasan.

Gypsum
Umum
Kataguri Mineral sulfate
Rumus kimia CaSO4·2H2O
Klasifikasi Strunz 7.CD.40
Simetri kristal Monoclinic
Space group: I2/a
Sel unit a = 5,679(5), b = 15,202(14)
c = 6,522(6) [Å]; β = 118,43°; Z = 4
Identifikasi
Warna Kada bawarna (dalam cahaya nang ditransmisiakan) ka putih; kadang bawarna lain maraga takana banda nag lain; bisa kuning; may be yellow, sawo masak, biru, habang anum, cokelat kadap, cokelat kahabangan, atawa abu-abu
Parawakan Ganal, rata. Mamanjang wan biasanya kristal prismatik
Sistem kristal Monoklinik
Bantuk kabaran Biasa banar di {110}
Balahan Pas banar di {010}, balain di {100}
Pacahan Konkoidal di {100}, pacahan sajajar lawan [001]
Sifat dalam Fleksibel, kada elastis
Kakarasan (Skala Mohs) 1,5–2 (manjalasakan mineral gasan for 2)
Kilap Nang kaya kaca sampai pina halus, kaya mutiara, atawa kaya lilin
Gores Putih
Diafaneitas Tambus pandang ka tambus cahaya
Berat jenis 2,31–2,33
Sifat optik Biaxial (+)
Indeks bias nα = 1,519–1,521
nβ = 1,522–1,523
nγ = 1,529–1,530
Bias ganda δ = 0,010
Pleokroisme kadada
Sudut 2V 58°
Fusibilitas 5
Kalarutan Panas, mancairakan HCl
Referensi [1][2][3]
Variasi utama
Satin spar Kaya mutiara, massa basarat
Selenite Tambus pandang wan kristal babilah padang
Alabaster Babutir halus, bawarna sadikit

SajarahSunting

Kata gipsum diambil matan kata di Yunani, yaitu kata γύψος (gypsos) nang baarti "plester".[4] Maraga tambang di distrik Montmartre di Paris sudah lawas mamakai pakakas gipsum nang dibakar (gipsum nang di kalsinasi gasan kaparluan macam-macam, gipsum nanvg karing ngini kaynanya dipinandui sabagai plester matan Paris. Amun ditambahi banyu, imbah kurang labih sapuluh menit, plester matan oaris tafi barubah (dihidrat) jadi gipsum pulang, mahasilakan material nang karas atau gasan dipakai maulah atau mambangun barang nang tapakai.[5]

Dalam bahasa Inggris nang bahari, gipsum disambat lawan ngaran spærstān, "spear stone" (batu tumbak), maraga ujung kristalnya nang luncup. (Kata spar dalam ilmu mineralogi marupakan kata nang artinya sama lawan kata gipsum, marujuk gasan mineral lain-babatuan atawa kristal nang bantuknya nang kaya tumbak). Pas abad ka-18 masehi, argikulturis wan pandita asal jirman bangaran Johann Friderich Mayer mainvestigasi wan mampublikasi kagunaan gipsum gasa pupuk.[6] Gipsum pinanya marupakan sumber sulfur gasan oartumbuhan tumbuhan wan dipamulaan abad ka-19, gipsum disambat sabagai pupuk paling bagus. Buhan Amerika nang gawiannya bahuma wan bakabun takutan banar mandapatakan pupuk ngini sampai manyalundupakan lawan Nova Scotia, sampai pahabisannga mahasilakan perang anng banagaran "Perang Plaster" pas 1820.[7] Pas pamulaan abad ka-19 di Irupa, gipsum dipinandui jua lawan ngaran Sulfat limau atawa sulfat matan limau.

Catatan BatisSunting

  1. ^ Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W.; Nichols, Monte C., ed. (2003). "Gypsum" (PDF). Handbook of Mineralogy. V (Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 978-0962209703. 
  2. ^ Gypsum. Mindat
  3. ^ a b Klein, Cornelis; Hurlbut, Cornelius S., Jr. (1985), Manual of Mineralogy  (edisi ke-20th), John Wiley, hlm. 352–353, ISBN 978-0-471-80580-9 
  4. ^ "Compact Oxford English Dictionary: gypsum". 
  5. ^ Szostakowski, B.; Smitham, P.; Khan, W.S. (2017-04-17). "Plaster of Paris–Short History of Casting and Injured Limb Immobilzation". The Open Orthopaedics Journal. 11: 291–296. 
  6. ^ Itihi:
    • Thaer, Albrecht Daniel; Shaw, William, trans.; Johnson, Cuthbert W., trans. (1844). The Principles of Agriculture. vol. 1. London, England: Ridgway. hlm. 519–520. From p. 544: " … er bewirtschaftete nebenbei ein Pfarrgüttchen, … für die Düngung der Felder mit dem in den nahen Waldenburger Bergen gefundenen Gips einsetzte." ( … he also managed a small parson's estate, on which he repeatedly conducted agricultural experiments. In 1768, he first published the fruits of his experiences during this time as "Instruction about Gypsum", in which he espoused the fertilizing of fields with the gypsum that was found in the nearby Waldenburg mountains.)
    • Beckmann, Johann (1775). Grundsätze der deutschen Landwirthschaft [Fundamentals of German Agriculture] (dalam bahasa Jerman) (edisi ke-2nd). Göttingen, (Germany): Johann Christian Dieterich. hlm. 60.  From p. 60: "Schon seit undenklichen Zeiten … ein Gewinn zu erhalten seyn wird." (Since times immemorial, in our vicinity, in the ministry of Niedeck [a village southeast of Göttingen], one has already made this use of gypsum; but Mr. Mayer has the merit to have made it generally known. In the History of Farming in Kupferzell, he had depicted a crushing mill (p. 74), in order to pulverize gypsum, from which a profit has been obtained, albeit with difficulty.)
    • Mayer, Johann Friderich (1768). Lehre vom Gyps als vorzueglich guten Dung zu allen Erd-Gewaechsen auf Aeckern und Wiesen, Hopfen- und Weinbergen [Instruction in gypsum as an ideal good manure for all things grown in soil on fields and pastures, hops yards and vineyards] (dalam bahasa Jerman). Anspach, (Germany): Jacob Christoph Posch. 
  7. ^ Smith, Joshua (2007). Borderland smuggling: Patriots, loyalists, and illicit trade in the Northeast, 1780–1820. Gainesville, FL: UPF. hlm. passim. ISBN 978-0-8130-2986-3.